Leen Helmink Antique Maps

America by Münster

Cartographer

Münster

Title

Die neuwen Inseln / so hinder Hispanien gegen Orient / bey dem Landt Indie ligen.

Published

Basle, 1540

Size

22.5 x 34.0 cms

Technique

Woodcut

Stock number

18657

Condition

excellent

Price

$ 4500

Description

"Sebastian Münster's famous woodblock of the New World.

The map shows North America almost split by the Sea of Verrazano, Japan is entitled Zipangri, and it is the first to show North and South America together."

(Potter p135).


"In 1540 Sebastian Münster, who was to become one of the most influential cartographers in the sixteenth century, published his edition of Ptolemy's 'Geographia' with a further section of modern, more up-to-date maps. He included for the first time a set of continental maps, the America was the earliest of any note. Münster studied Hebrew at Heidelberg and was a scholar of geography, writing amongst other works the 'Polyhistor' [...]. He was one of the first to create space in the woodblock for the insertion of place-names in metal type. The map's inclusion in Münster's 'Cosmography', first published in 1544, sealed the fate of 'America' as the name for the New World. The book proved to be very popular, there being nearly forty editions during the following 100 years.

The Portuguese flag is shown flying over the South Atlantic and the Spanish one over her possessions in the Caribbean. The Strait of Magellan are named again, and 'Mare pacificum' appears for the first time on a printed map. Magellan's ship 'Victoria', the only survivor of five vessels, appears in the middle of this ocean.

Marco Polo's influence can be seen with 'Zipangri' (Japan) appearing three years before the earliest known contact with Europeans, and also his 'Archipelagus 7448 insularu'. The Yucatan is still shown as an island and the lake at 'Temistitan' is depicted emptying into the Gulf of Mexico.

North America is not shown as accurately as the southern half of the continent, it had to a large extent been neglected so far by explorers. When Giovanni di Verrazano, in the service of Francis I of France, passed by the outer banks of the Carolinas in 1524 he mistook Pamlico and Albemarle Sounds for the 'Oriental Sea' that led to Cathay and the rich Spice Islands. Here Münster perpetuates this error and through the success of this book provided a huge impetus to the exploration of the region. The only planenames occurring here are 'C.Britonum', marking England's early explorations, 'Corterati', probably Newfoundland after the Corte Reals, and 'Terra florida'. 'FRANSISCA' is named in honour of Francis I."

(Burden).



"In 1540 Sebastian Münster, who was to become one of the most influential cartographers in the sixteenth century, published his edition of Ptolemy's 'Geographia' with a further section of modern, more up-to-date maps. He included for the first time a set of continental maps, the America was the earliest of any note. Münster studied Hebrew at Heidelberg and was a scholar of geography, writing amongst other works the 'Polyhistor' [...]. He was one of the first to create space in the woodblock for the insertion of place-names in metal type."

(Burden).


"Following the various editions of Waldseemüller's maps, the names of three cartographers dominate the sixteenth century: Mercator, Ortelius and Münster, and of these three Münster probably had the widest influence in spreading geographical knowledge throughout Europe in the middle years of the century.

His 'Cosmographia', issued in 1544, contained not only the latest maps and views of many well-known cities, but included an encyclopaedic amount of detail about the known - and unknown - world and undoubtedly must have been one of the most widely read books of its time, going through nearly forty editions in six languages.

An eminent German mathematician and linguist, Münster became
Professor of Hebrew at Heidelberg and later at Basle, where he settled in 1529. In 1528, following his first mapping of Germany, he appealed to German scholars to send him 'descriptions, so that all Germany with its villages, towns, trades, etc. may be seen as in a mirror', even going so far as to give instructions on how they should 'map' their own localities. The response was far greater than expected and such information was sent by foreigners as well as Germans so that, eventually, he was able to include many up-to-date, if not very accurate, maps in his atlases.

He was the first to provide a separate map of each of the four known Continents and the first separately printed map of England. His maps, printed from woodblocks, are now greatly valued by collectors. His two major works, the 'Geographia' and the 'Cosmographia' were published in Basle by his step-son, Henri Petri, who continued to issue many editions after Münster's death of the plague in 1552."

(Moreland & Bannister).


"The remaining modern maps, [...], are all drawn on a plane projection, undergraduated, without scales, and variously oriented with north, south, east or west at the top, 'without the excuse of topographical necessity', as Nordenskjöld severely remarks. In spite of these and other cartographic defects, they constitute an important corpus of geographical knowledge and interpretation; Münster was the first atlas-maker to furnish separate maps of the four continents then known; and for England, Scandinavia and southern Germany, eastern Europe and America he brought recent and significant representations into general currency."

(Skelton).


"The 'Cosmographia' of Sebastian Münster must rank as the greatest geographical compendium of the period - an immensely detailed work illustrated with woodcut portraits, scenes, town plans and panoramas, and maps.

Born in 1488, Münster was a Fransiscan who became Professor of Hebrew at Heidelberg and later at Basle, where he taught Hebrew and, amongst other works, published the first German translation of the Bible from Hebrew.

In 1540 his edition of Ptolemy's 'Geographia' was published, followed in 1544 by the 'Cosmographia Universalis'. Together these ran to over 35 editions published mostly in Basle in Latin, German, French and Italian versions.

Münster's particular cartographic importance lies in the number of 'new' maps he introduced and, above all, in the innovative, separate mapping of each of the four continents."

(Potter p38).